UNSCR 1696 (2006) On July 31, 2006, the UNSC passed its first resolution regarding Iran’s nuclear ambitions. UNSCR 1696 called on the regime to suspend its enrichment program and comply with the IAEA Board of Governor’s requirements. Iran refused to cooperate and comply with UNSCR 1696 as well as subsequent demands of the international community, including additional UNSC requests and resolutions. Therefore, in December 2006, the UNSC passed UNSCR 1737.
UNSC Resolution 1701 (2006) Ended the Second Lebanon War; ordered the deployment of the Lebanese army along the border with Israel and banned the armed presence of Hezbollah in the vicinity to the Israeli-Lebanese border. It also put an embargo on weapon shipments to Hezbollah.
UNSCR 1757 (2007) On February 14, 2005, former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik al-Hariri was assassinated in Beirut. The United Nations Security Council created a special team and launched an investigation to determine who killed al-Hariri. Based on their findings, on May 30, 2007, the UNSC adopted UNSCR 1757, authorizing an international tribunal’s formation to investigate the assassination. The body was called the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL). Its mandate was to investigate people only. It did not have the authority to bring organizations or governments to trial. The tribunal was empowered to act under Chapter 7 of the UN Charter. Chapter 7 allows the use of force and sanctions against countries that do not cooperate with the STL’s orders and demands.
UNSC 1737 (2006) The first international resolution that imposed sanctions on Iran for not complying with previous demands and continuing its uranium enrichment program. UNSCR 1737 demanded that Iran halt its uranium enrichment program. UNSC Resolution 2216 (2015) Demands the Houthis withdraw from all areas seized during the conflict, relinquish the arms they took from military and security institutions, and restore the authority of the legitimate Government of Yemen. The Houthis ignored the resolution.
UNSCR 2231 (2015) The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) was endorsed by UN Security Council Resolution 2231 and adopted on July 20, 2015. Iran’s compliance with the nuclear-related provisions of the JCPOA was to be verified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) according to certain requirements outlined in the agreement.
UNSCR 2259 (2015) In December 2105, in an attempt to end the civil war in Libya and resolve the dispute between the eastern and western seats of government, the United Nations brokered an agreement known as the Libyan Political Agreement (LPA) or the Skihrat Agreement (since it was signed in Skihrat, Morocco). The LPA created a Presidency Council—a body tasked to form a unity government.
UNSCR 2259 endorsed the agreement and called on the Presidency Council to form a Government of National Accord (GNA). The GNA was to be the official government of Libya, and it was to be based in Tripoli, which is in western Libya. The UNSCR also called on all member states to not support or contact any other entity outside of the GNA that claims to be the official representative or government of Libya.
UNSC Resolution 2451 (2018) In December 2018, the UNSC unanimously passed Resolution 2451 endorsing the Yemenite Government and the Houthis agreement, known as the Stockholm Agreement or the Al-Hodeidah Agreement. The goal of the deal was to stop the violence and alleviate the escalating humanitarian crisis. According to the agreement, Hodeidah, occupied by the Houthis, and the surrounding area were to be demilitarized. And the UN was to monitor the al-Hodeidah ports. Thus far, the Stockholm Agreement and the UNSC Resolution 2451 have not been implemented
Watan The Homeland
Wataniya Particularistic nationalism emphasizes the state’s unique characteristics (local history, traditions, societal fabric, dialect, etc.) and its independence and sovereignty.
Zionism The Jews’ return to their homeland and restoring Jewish sovereignty in their ancient Jewish homeland, known as Eretz Israel or Zion.
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